In 1961 when South African became a Republic and the Queen was no longer head of state, the Pound was replaced by the Rand currency.  Initially the exchange was £1=R2, sixty years later the exchange rate is £1=R20. The first banknotes had heads of Jan van Riebeeck, recognised as a founder of South Africa by … Read more 45


In this exhibition, mirrors are used to reflect a degree of rhinoceros subjectivity. This is denoted textually by the sounds they use to communicate. Rhinoceros are largely solitary creatures, yet have a range of different social behaviours that include olfactory, visual and auditory communication. They communicate by scent marking: dung scattering and urine spraying, but … Read more 47


The first museum in India was the Indian Museum in Calcutta (Kolkota), originally named the Oriental Museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, which opened in 1814. This housed archaeological and ethnographic collections as well as the first collections of natural history in India. There are now seventeen dedicated natural history museums in India. The … Read more 37


Cleaning kit for a Vektor R4 rifle The Vektor R4 rifle became the standard service rifle of the South African Defence Force in 1980. It was designed by the Israeli Military Industries in the late 1960s and used in the South African Border War, Rwandan Civil War, Burundian Civil War, CAR conflict, Bophuthatswana Crisis and … Read more 43


Woodcuts of a rhinoceros produced for folio books 30-40 years after the Dürer image. Michael Herr. 1546. Wahrhaffte und eygentliche beschreibung wunderbarlicher seltzamer art natur krafft un eygenschafft aller vierfüssigen their. Strasburg  Hubert Espine. 1558. Description des admirables et merveilleuses regions longtaines et estranges nations payennes de Tartarie, & de la principaulte de leur souverain … Read more 40


The narrative of Ganda, Dürer’s rhino, is that King Manuel I of Portugal soon tired of the Indian rhino, as it did not live up to the expectations of fiercely warring with his menagerie elephants. A few months after arriving at the Ribeira Palace in Lisbon, Ganda was decked with a golden garland of roses … Read more 38


George Mottershead opened the Chester Zoo in 1931, the first “zoo without bars” in England. In 1953 their first black female rhinoceros arrived at the zoo and died the same year. The coronation of Queen Elizabeth II was on 2 June 1953. In 1961 a stamp was issued in the British Protectorate of North Borneo … Read more 39


Engraving illustration of the taxidermied Versailles rhino by Nicolas Mare´chal, published by naturalist George Cuvier in 1801. Cuvier is best known for his work on comparative anatomy, but also for his studies that supported scientific racism. In 1810 Sara Baartman was taken from South Africa to England by Hendrik Cezar and William Dunlop, where she … Read more 36


African big game hunting became popular in Europe from the mid 1800s, particularly after Roualeyn Gordon-Cumming returned to Britain with 30 tons of animal trophies, and opened his collection to the public. The image of the heroic, white male hunter coincided with the development of photography, and thus the romantic notion of hunting in Africa, for the … Read more 42


The Dutch presence in India lasted from 1605 to 1825. In 1740, Douwe Mout van der Meer brought Clara, the Indian rhinoceros, on a seven-month sea voyage from Calcutta to Rotterdam. She had audiences with King Frederick II of Prussia and King Louis XV of France and died in 1758 in London after touring most … Read more 34